Friday, August 21, 2020


Question: Compose an exposition onOrganizations. Answer: In todays serious condition that is persevering exceptionally in the business zone over the world, support of fitting joining has become the principal need. Association Behavior, accordingly, is such an idea, that requires a quick acknowledgment in practically all the organizations. Responsibility to an association is one of most significant saying that the associations focus on. An association so as to advance in their specific fields of specialization must guarantee that the representatives working in that specific association can recognize themselves with the objectives of the association. The administrative branch of the specific firm should mull over the components that influence the conduct or the exhibition of the workers towards the association. Hierarchical conduct and hence the part of authoritative promise to the association are interrelated. Upkeep of legitimate work proficiency in an organization requests that the authoritative conduct among the working staff and the adm inistration of the organization is of most extreme worth. The very idea of authoritative conduct alludes to the interface between the conduct of the working staff of an association and the association itself. Hierarchical conduct of the people working in a business firm decides to a great extent the idea of development of an association. The mechanical transformation that occurred during the eighteenth century prompted the increase of the beneficial degree of the businesses. The expansion in the degrees of creation was liable for disturbing the hierarchical conduct of the representatives. The representatives needed to work under unfriendly conditions in the manufacturing plants and with low installments. In any case, with the appearance of modernisation during the post war period, the structure of the associations experienced a change and the force of globalization made the associations present more concentration upon the ad lib of the associations. To make due in this serious condi tion, the organizations need to embrace certain strategies that can help in the upgrade of the states of the workers. A changed arrangement of components impact the authoritative conduct of the organizations. The relationship of the representatives with the administration of the association, the basic system of the organization, the approaches and plans coordinated to the government assistance of the workers, incorporated structure of the administration and support of solidarity in the assorted variety that remaining parts present in the hierarchical culture are the estimating heads. These variables decide the authoritative conduct and its effect upon the association. Conversation: As per Barnard, (1938), Organizations are helpful or social frameworks that include and require the coordination of the substantial and the elusive, for example the people and the innovation. Both the expert and the individual issue should amalgamate in a precise way. Accordingly, the majority of the pundits are of the sentiment that the Organizational Behavior is the investigation of the working and execution of an association and the manners by which the people working in the organization that choose the development of that specific association. Hierarchical Behavior is about the manner in which the earth of an association impact the people or the individuals working in an association, and the other way around. It very well may be all the more fittingly portrayed as the part of applied science that manages the investigation of an all out interdisciplinary methodology that is humanistic and situated towards the goals of the association (Hogg and Terry 2014.). The very idea of Organi zational conduct underlines the way that a business procedure is really a social framework and not just an innovation or financial perspectives based association. Thusly, cooperation of the people in each procedure in general establishes the arrangement and methodical activity of an industry. Purposes behind leading an authoritative Behavior: The chiefs in todays serious world have progressively felt the requirement for undertaking the observing of the working of the associations. The organizations lead the reviews in various manners. The modification between an individual and association has genuine ramifications upon the best possible support of the procedures of an association. The social reviews are frequently embraced by the organizations so as to survey the status of socialization existing in a specific organization between the administration and the workforce. This sort of review is led to analyze the qualities and convictions winning in the association. This review assists with examining the social climate of the association. The basic occasions that occur in the organizations are assessed by such reviews that help in choosing the essential strategies that should be gone ahead for limiting such basic occasions, so the beneficial outcomes can be upgraded. An association is constantly shaped through proper joining o f the subcultures. As and when the people working in an association can familiarize them with such an environment and enhance socialization, that specific association can advance its situation as far as hierarchical conduct (Naylor et al. 2013). The central capacity of the review groups stay in assessing the moral conduct of the associations. A morals review is directed so as to check whether the administration or the specialists of the organization authorizes and keeps up its pledge to the moral standards. The inspectors must be productive and qualified to be skillful enough to see all the important business principles. The morals review group with the assistance of the reports assembled through the essential sources, clients and partners could overview the moral conduct of an organization suitably. The review group is likewise required by the association to make study whether the people working in the association precisely follow the codes or strategic approaches. Infringement of the moral norms in an organization will prompt the decrease in the productive situation of any business association in the business world. In this way, it turns out to be basic for the organization to lead inspecting at customary interims (OSISIOMA 2015.). Territories to be surveyed in an Organizational Behavior Audit: Firstly, in the connection between an associations workforce and the specialists is strongly major so as to guarantee representative maintenance and creating authoritative responsibility among the workers. The review group along these lines should accordingly inspect the qualities shared between the representatives and the initiative and the administrative branch of the organization. On the off chance that the connection between the associations managerial and the workforce report a debate, at that point the review group must propose certain systems that would help in creating corporate connections (Barrick 2013). Besides, examining of the control condition turns into a necessary factor. Overviews ought to be led regarding the inward activities of the association. The review group ought to assess the measures of execution the executives during the procedure of inspecting the hierarchical conduct. Execution review is directed by the organization in surveying the level or the nature of the presentation of the representatives of a specific association (Naylor et al. 2013). Thirdly, complaints review is another piece of hierarchical review program. In the event of authoritative conduct review, the review needs to make a true overview with respect to the criticism of the workers. In the event that the workers render a negative criticism as far as the money related and moral help gave to them by the representatives, the review group would propose imperative arrangements and projects that are required to pick up the worker maintenance and in this way increment the dedication of the workers (Montano and Kasprzyk 2015). Fourthly, there exists the knowled ge review that assists with deciding and inspect the way where an association works in the business and how the general condition presents sway upon the working of the association. The insight review considers the vital business procedures, methodology and societies that characterize the whole foundation of an association. The knowledge arrangement of an association should be adaptable enough to adjust to the progressions happening in the general condition and along these lines meet the business interests. Variables assessed in the previously mentioned regions: The as a matter of first importance factor that is significant in an association is the representatives. The proficient presentation of the representatives at last updates the working of a business association. In this manner, the review or overview of the presentation of the workforce is the central point that should be embraced by the review group. There ought to be an assessment of the social situation of the associations. The whole working staffs of an association are described by the social decent variety. Subsequently, it becomes significant that there remains honesty in this decent variety. The administration of the association remains constantly liable for appropriate organization of the social structure inside the organization.The government assistance of the representatives is another most significant worry that ought to be considered during the review. It is on the grounds that when the workers of a business concern know about the way that the firm is giving all the requir ed and advocated necessities that can improve the profitability and productivity of the representatives (Craft 2013).The hierarchical conduct review should fittingly lead the study with respect to the dynamic methodology of the firm. A functioning investment with respect to each individual is a flat out pre-imperative if there should be an occurrence of each firm. Along these lines, the evaluating of the business associations should make an investigation of such parts of any firm. It should in particular evaluate that the choices taken by the firm are prudent and are aimed at

Saturday, July 11, 2020

Writing Essays Using New York Times Essay Topics

Writing Essays Using New York Times Essay TopicsWhy do you need to use the New York Times essay topics? Why not use some other question and answer type thing instead? You see this is a problem in an essay. A major one.How do I know this? Because this is how I have been taught in a college - and it is extremely important point.If you take it the wrong way and start just going through the passages and asking yourself 'what do I think this person is trying to say here?' You will miss a major critical reading and miss an opportunity to really develop your ability to read.This is the most crucial aspect of all in writing. It is so important that, as an ESL Teacher in Japan, I know that if I told my students to simply write down what they heard, that is all they would be able to do. This is because we have to teach them to read properly - to comprehend meaning.The New York Times essay topics are not for just memorizing anything that someone says in an essay. They are for learning how to re ad, and if you want to write for a living, then you need to know the words and the meanings of them.The New York Times essay topics are for reading them. When I am doing my research, I look at the papers from the past decade to find out what kind of questions were asked.In other words, I want to find out what the questions were that students ask their teachers and what's essays. I then compare this with what I find in the papers and I try to extrapolate and make an educated guess as to what the students are really trying to say.I have found that the best way to make your students learn from your essay topics is to actually look at the essays that they are doing and figure out what they really mean. This gives you a chance to help them do it right on the fly.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

The Relationship Between Slavery and Freedom Essay

The Relationship Between Slavery and Freedom For Edmund S. Morgan American slavery and American freedom go together hand in hand. Morgan argues that many historians seem to ignore writing about the early development of American freedom simply because it was shaped by the rise of slavery. It seems ironic that while one group of people is trying to break the mold and become liberated, that same group is making others confined and shattering their respectability. The aspects of liberty, race, and slavery are closely intertwined in the essay, Slavery and Freedom: The American Paradox. The contradictions between slavery and freedom are very apparent throughout history. America started out with the intentions of becoming separate†¦show more content†¦It is a great debate as to why they treated that small group so poorly. Jefferson felt very strongly about the freedom of an individual. His idea of freedom was that the individual was independent, and not under the control of a government for example. There were two main things that Jefferson was concerned with, debt and distrust of men who were landless workers (124). With the first he felt that while under debt a man had very limited freedom of action. The landless workers he felt were very dependent. They had to work because there was no land for backup. In these times owning property was an important part of being a free man. Perhaps this led to slavery for those who did not own land. Many think slavery was always race based, but Jefferson?s position shows a different view. The problem with the landless workers escalated to its height in 1676 when about one fourth of freemen in Virginia did not own any land of their own (132). Many of these men wandered about, living dangerous and non goal oriented lives. These people were causing big problems among the Virginia population. While they needed the immigrants to work, when they were turned free they went out of control. Eventually this led to Bacon?s Rebellion. The problem was similar to that in England so they treated it the same way, with many tough restrictions of liberty (134). In efforts to control everything the government ended upShow MoreRelatedThe Relationship between Slavery and Freedom in Provincial Chesapeake753 Words   |  4 PagesThe Relationship between Slavery and Freedom in Provincial Chesapeake Edmund S. Morgan has presented an interesting question regarding the question of the colonists treatment of slavery as a special circumstance, one that is separate from freedom. The promotion of freedom by the Virginia settlers to their own kind, but not to those whose skin was a darker shade, exhibits the tough judgment calls that had to be made to help the colony survive. There seemed to be a more prevalent concern amongRead MoreEssay Ancient Slavery: Death Senetence or Life Opportunity?554 Words   |  3 PagesIn Aristotles Justifying Slavery and Senecas On Master and Slave, the two authors express their opposing sentiments on the principles of slavery. While Aristotle describes slavery as predestined inferiority, evidenced greatly by physical attributes, Seneca emphasizes the importance of philosophical freedom as opposed to physical freedom. (p. 58). The authors contrasting views are disclosed in their judgments on the morality of slavery, the degree of freedom all people possess at birthRead MoreRelationship Between Institution of Slavery and Outbreak of Civil War863 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Relationship between Institution of Slavery and Outbreak of Civil War Abstract Fundamentally, Slavery is an economic phenomenon. Looking at the history throughout, slavery has always existed where it has been an economic worthwhile to all those having power. Before the Civil War in U.S, nearly four million slaves lived there. Rates of return on slaves were enjoyed by the masters and these rates were comparable to assets. Industrial enterprises, cotton consumers and insurance companies benefitedRead MoreThe Civil War : Truly Mind Boggling1457 Words   |  6 Pagesthere was always an unpleasant feeling between slaveholders and those working themselves† (80). Nonslaveholders were known as yeomen and actually did their own work. On the other hand, slaveholders had the slaves work for them. They were lazy and never participated in the work on their plantations. There was often confusion associated with a slaveholder and nonslaveholder. Many questions were asked concerning how their views were alike or different about slavery. Not owning a slave, was not an indicationRead MoreThe Narrative Of Frederick Douglass1132 Words   |  5 Pagesways slave owners kept slaves captive is through keeping the slaves ignorant. It is nearly impossible for a slave to escape slavery if they cannot read and write. Slave owners knew how impossible this was so they kept them ignorant, they kept them from learning. Since ignorance is what seems to hold slaves captive, one could easily conclude that knowledge is the key to freedom. Douglass figured this out at a young age. He starts learning from Mrs. Auld but eventually ends up disappointed when he learnsRead MoreFreedom, Without Qualification Is An Important Piece Of `` Americana ``1595 Words   |  7 PagesFreedom is such an important piece of â€Å"Americana† that everyone, inside or outside of the United States, believes they know what the word means; yet when asked to define it, the word retreats to the abstract nothingness of intangible shadows. Freedom’s complicated nature becomes an important topic when comparing the free and enslaved black women in three antebellum narratives: Harriet Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Melton A. McLaurin’s Celia, a Slave, and Harriet E. Wilson’s OurRead MoreSolomon Northup s Abduction And Sale Into Slavery1000 Words   |  4 PagesSolomon Northup’s abduction and sale into slavery begins his journey into being a slave for a long duration of his life. In the book, 12 Years a Slave, he discusses the plight of the unfortunate circumstances that would lead him to a life of pain and suffering. His story, first shared after he attained freedom, reached many who then looked at the suffering of African Americans at the hands of slavery. While Solomon’s story is truly unique, it still holds validity. The importance and effectivenessRead More The Powerful Ideal of Freedom Essay1484 Words   |  6 PagesThe Powerful Ideal of Freedom Developed in Harriet Jacobs’ Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Blood-Burning Moon, by Jean Toomer, and W.E.B DuBois’ The Souls of Black Folk Slavery played an overwhelming role throughout the history of the United States. The riches created by the unpaid labor of African Americans helped to guarantee the country’s industrial revolution and succeeding economic strength. Yet, that wealth created incredible political power for slaveholders and their representativesRead MoreThe Life Of Frederick Douglas s Narrative Of The Life Of A Slave Girl1378 Words   |  6 Pageswithin society. This is exhibited in Jacob and Douglass’s narratives as they depict the human relationships between races through their description of the dehumanizing body of slavery. In the novel, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas, set from early to middle 1800s in southern states, Frederick Douglas highlights the brutal aspects of slavery as he transitions into adulthood and seeks to obtain freedom, something that serves as a source of inspiration for former slaves. Similarly in the slaveRead MoreAnalysis Of Toni Morrison s Beloved161 5 Words   |  7 PagesIn her novel Beloved, Toni Morrison utilizes a circular narrative to emphasize the similarities, or lack thereof, between her characters. In Philip Page’s article, â€Å"Circularity in Toni Morrison’s Beloved,† he writes, â€Å"The plot is developed through repetition and variation of one or more core-images in overlapping waves... And it is developed through... the spiraling reiteration of larger, mythical acts such as birth, death, rebirth, quest-journeys, and the formation and disintegration of families†

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Names in The Odyssey and The Bible - 1634 Words

Importance of Names in The Odyssey and The Bible Two of the most widely studied ancient works are Homer’s Odyssey and the book of Genesis from the Bible. Each of these texts provides a unique viewpoint of an early civilization. In both of the texts, one can learn not only stories about great heroes, but also about the way that these peoples lived and what they believed. Many interesting parallels can be drawn between the two developing societies shown in the Odyssey and the book of Genesis. One parallel is the importance placed on names by each culture. Although viewed as important in different ways, the value placed on a name shows a striking similarity between the evolving cultures of both the Greeks and the Hebrews.†¦show more content†¦For example, when Athena, disguised as Mentà ªs, introduces herself to Telemachus, she says, â€Å"My name is Mentà ªs; I am the son of a clever father, Anchialos†. A name symbolized not only one’s own fame and honor, but also that of one’s ancestry. I f a man’s family was particularly honorable or dishonorable, it was instantly obvious because of the renown and history that stood behind his name. The name was truly the most important possession of any man in early Grecian culture. This is probably best evidenced by Odysseus’ encounter with the cyclops, Polyphemos. In the beginning, Odysseus merely tells Polyphemos that he is Noman, a man with no history or background, about whom the cyclops does not know if he should fear or welcome, a man whom he could never find again. After he has injured Polyphemos and is away from him, however, Odysseus tells his name, saying, â€Å"†¦your blinder was Odysseus, the conqueror of Troy, the son of Laà «rtà ªs, whose address is in Ithaca!† It seems that Odysseus cannot stand the thought of this great victory not being added to the history of his name, and, although it gets him in lots of trouble, thinks it much worse to do a great deed unknown than to suffer the consequences of having it known. This example clearly summarizes the higher and deeper purpose of a name in ancient Grecian culture, to be a witness for the man himself and his character. In the Odyssey, Homer also uses the namesShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Sweet Song of Dante Alighieris Siren1652 Words   |  7 Pagesincorporating themes of unqualified repentance and realization of the true goodness of things divine. The Sirens are familiar literary characters from Greek mythology; they are most recognized as one of the many perils Odysseus encounters in Homers Odyssey. As Circe explains to Odysseus before he sets out for home, You will come first of all to the Sirens, who are enchanters / of all mankind and whoever comes their way†¦/ They sit in their meadow, but the beach before it is piled with boneheaps / ofRead MoreTrojan War2196 Words   |  9 PagesAphrodite after she offered to make Helen, the most beautiful of all women, fall in love with him. 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You may choose a work from the list below or one of comparable literary merit.Read MoreHow to Write a Research Paper11497 Words   |  46 Pagesbook by a corporate author (commission, association, committee): 6. A book by an anonymous author: 7. A book with an editor only: 8. A book with an author and an editor: 9. A work in an anthology or a collection of essays: 10. An introduction, preface, foreword, afterword, or textbook glossary: 11. A book in a series (multiple authors): * Note: 47 is series number 12. A multi-volume work, same author, one title: 13. A multi-volumeRead MorePostmodernism and the Simpsons10775 Words   |  44 PagesHugvà ­sindadeild Postmodernism and The Simpsons Intertextuality, Hyperreality and Critique of Metanarratives Ritgerà ° til B.A.-prà ³fs Bjà ¶rn Erlingur Flà ³ki Bjà ¶rnsson Kt. 110982-5779 Maà ­ 2006 Abstract This essay offers a postmodernist reading of the popular television program The Simpsons, with special regard to the postmodern theories of intertexuality, hyperreality, and metanarratives. Before delving into The Simpsons, some major theoretical aspects of postmodernism in aestheticRead MoreTest Bank For Ethics For The Information Age 5th Edition Mike Quinn4321 Words   |  18 Pagesin national elections. d) transmit light without wires. e) All of the above 29. The power of radio as a medium of mass communication was demonstrated in 1938 when Orson Welles put on a dramatization of a) War of the Worlds. b) Hamlet. c) Homer’s Odyssey. d) the assassination of Franklin Roosevelt. e) 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea. 30. ARPA Director J.C.R. Licklider conceived of a Galactic Network that would a) control weapons from space. b) guide spacecraft to distant planets. c) become the world’sRead MoreStudy Guide Literary Terms7657 Words   |  31 Pagesoverwhelming space, danger, instability; whereas earth connotes safety, fertility and stability. 28. claim-to assert or maintain as a fact: Ex. She claimed that he was telling the truth. 29. classification and division- In a classification essay, a writer organizes, or sorts, things into categories. Division separates items into categories. 30. coherence- logical interconnection; overall sense or understandability. The property of unity in a written text or a segment of spoken discourseRead MoreThe Love Song of J.Alfred Prufrock Essay4201 Words   |  17 Pagesto be comforted.   Ã‚   5. Consider the title of the poem. How is it ironic? In what ways is the poem a love song? The title is actually the only place where Prufrock’s name is mentioned – in the poem he talks about himself in the first person. Eliot is clearly poking fun of himself with this title – as a young man he signed his name T. Stearns Eliot, but that doesn’t mean the poem is biographical. For one thing, we’re pretty sure Eliot didn’t drown in the ocean. The other thing to know about theRead MoreAmerican Literature11652 Words   |  47 Pages errand into the wilderness be a city upon a hill Christian utopia Genre/Style: ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · sermons, diaries personal narratives captivity narratives jeremiads written in plain style Effect: ï‚ · ï‚ · instructive reinforces authority of the Bible and church Historical Context: ï‚ · ï‚ · a person s fate is determined by God all people are corrupt and must be saved by Christ Rationalism / Age of Enlightenment period of American Literature - 1750-1800 Content: ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · ï‚ · national missionRead MoreChildrens Literature13219 Words   |  53 Pagesnothing that could be considered a children’s book in the sense of a book written to give pleasure to a child. Because there were very few works composed for children, children borrowed from stories they enjoyed listening to such as the Iliad, the Odyssey, and Aesop’s Fables. Plato specifically mentions children’s education in Book VI of The Republic. Though he holds rather liberal views on education and directly states that children’s lessons should â€Å"take the form of play,† Plato held less liberal

Ancient Chinese Art Forms Essay Example For Students

Ancient Chinese Art Forms Essay Category:HistoryPaper Title:Ancient Chinese Art FormsText:Chinese art is known as one of the worlds oldest found art forms, with piecesdating back to 1500 BC. There are many different mediums used in Chinese art,such as sculpture, painting, and architecture. Sculptures were often mad ofjade, ivory, or glass. Sculpture flourished during the time of the Ming(1368-1644) dynasty. Although Chinese painting styles became very popular in the Tang (618-906)and Sung (960-1279) dynasties, the human form was often disregarded. FollowingTaoist and Confucian ideas, people were left out so as not to intrude on theorderly magnitude of nature. Throughout the later Ming (1368-1644) dynasty,the human figure and still life became more accepted and of greater importance. * * *Peach VaseQing Dynasty, Qianlong period (1736-1795). This vase is a beautiful example of the Chineses use of ceramics withlaquers and enamels. This vase rivaled Western artists achievements in oilpaints with highly advanced opaque enamel colors. Made in the 18th century, thisvase is symbolic of peace and longevity, as it shows the peach in all stages oflife at the same time. This vase sits 50.3 cm high. * * *Deer EwerTang dynasty (618-907)Changsha ceramics, such as this ewer were the first to have paintings paintedon them under the glaze, so as to prolong the painting and colors. The mostwidely used designs were flowers and birds. Anything that added to theatractiveness of the piece was considered. Even so, man-made items such asbuildings or bridges were never seen. Very rarely a piece will be founddepicting the human figure in the form of women and children, but never men. * * *Jade Dragon and Phoenix3rd Century BC, period 480-221 BC. The pendant is dated back to 300 BC. The pendant was most likely used asornamentation for the upper class. The style used to carve this piece representsflowing elegance, shown in its wonderfully sloping curves. Jade, being and extremely hard stone, was never carved. In this case it hadbeen ground and drilled into shape, and polished to a sparkling finish. BibliographyIndianapolis Museum of Art, Copyright 2000, IndianapolisMuseum of ArtEncyclopedia.Com, Copyright 2000,Encyclopedia.ComHistory

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Virtual Reality Essays (876 words) - Virtual Reality,

Virtual Reality What is Virtual Reality? The term Virtual Reality (VR) is used by many different people and currently has many meanings. There are some people to whom VR is a specific collection of technologies, that is a Head Mounted Display, Glove Input Device and Audio. However, the general concept of the systems goes way beyond that. "Virtual Reality is a way for humans to visualize, manipulate and interact with computers and extremely complex data" The visualization part refers to the computer generating visual, auditory or other sensual inputs. The images are graphical renderings of a world within the computer. This world may be a CAD model, a scientific simulation, or a view into a database. The user can interact with the world and directly manipulate objects within the world. Some worlds are animated by other processes, perhaps physical simulations, or simple animation scripts. Some people object to the term "Virtual Reality", saying it is an oxymoron. Other terms that have been used are Synthetic Environments, Cyberspace, Artificial Reality, Simulator Technology, etc. VR is the most common and sexiest. It has caught the attention of the media. The applications being developed for VR run a wide spectrum, from games to building and business planning. Many applications are worlds that are very similar to our own, like CAD or architectural modeling. Some applications provide ways of viewing from an advantageous perspective not possible with the real world, like scientific simulators and telepresense systems, air traffic control systems. Other applications are much different from anything we have ever directly experienced before. These latter applications may be the hardest, and most interesting systems. Visualizing the ebb and flow of the world's financial markets. Navigating a large corporate information base, etc. A major distinction of VR systems is the mode with which they interface to the user. There are some non-technologically mediated methods that some people stretch to include in VR, such as books, plays, movies or pure imagination. The above mentioned taxonomy can include these, but we wish to restrict VR to technology mediated systems. Some systems use a conventional computer monitor to display the visual world. This sometimes called desktop VR or a Window on a World (WoW). This concept traces its lineage back through the entire history of computer graphics. In 1965, Ivan Sutherland laid out a research program for computer graphics in a paper called "The Ultimate Display" that has driven the field for the past nearly thirty years. One must look at a display screen, he said, as a window through which one beholds a virtual world. The challenge to computer graphics is to make the picture in the window look real, sound real and the objects act real. [quoted from Computer Graphics V26#3] A variation of the WoW approach merges a video input of the user's silhouette with a 2D computer graphic. The user watches a monitor that shows his body's interaction with the world. Myron Kruger has been a champion of this form of VR since the late 60's. He has published two books on the subject: "Artificial Reality" and "Artificial Reality II". At least one commercial system uses this approach, the Mandala system. This system is based on a Commodore Amiga with some added hardware and software. A version of the Mandala is used by the cable TV channel Nickelodeon for a game show (Nick Arcade) to put the contestants into what appears to be a large video game. Immersive Systems is the ultimate VR systems, completely immerse the user's personal viewpoint inside the virtual world. These "immersive" VR systems are often equipped with a Head Mounted Display. This is a helmet or a face mask that holds the visual and auditory displays. The helmet may be free ranging, or it might be attached to some sort of a boom armature. A nice variation of the immersive systems use multiple large projection displays to create a 'Cave'. An early implementation was called "The Closet Cathedral" for the ability to create the impression of an immense environment. within a small physical space. The Holodeck used in the television series "Star Trek: The Next Generation" is an extrapolation of this technology. A variation on visualizing complete computer generated worlds is "Telepresence". This is a technology